Le 16 février, le ministère de la Propagande publiait un communiqué de presse qui dessinait la ligne générale de la propagande nazie : Dresde n'avait aucune industrie de guerre, n'était qu'une ville de culture et d'hôpitaux. Read Dresde 1945 book reviews & author details and more at Amazon.in. [21], Plans for a large, intense aerial bombing of Berlin and the other eastern cities had been discussed under the code name Operation Thunderclap in mid-1944, but were shelved on 16 August. There was a huge uproar, since the Yalta agreement handed parts of Poland over to the Soviet Union. 47) considéré actuellement comme falsifié[22],[23],[24], une copie[25] de l'original ayant été retrouvée à Dresde par Götz Bergander. [161], Kurt Vonnegut's novel Slaughterhouse-Five or The Children's Crusade: A Duty-Dance with Death (1969) used some elements from his experiences as a prisoner of war at Dresden during the bombing. Par coïncidence, le jour précédant le raid, un document du ministère allemand des Affaires étrangères avait été mis en circulation dans les pays neutres, critiquant Arthur Harris comme le responsable des bombardements de terreur. I den henseende ville et bombardement kunne ramme meget industri. "[146], According to historian Sönke Neitzel, "it is difficult to find any evidence in German documents that the destruction of Dresden had any consequences worth mentioning on the Eastern Front. Les témoignages font aussi dramatiquement état de la présence d'une tempête de feu (Feuersturm) sur plusieurs kilomètres carrés, confirmée par les analyses[32], avec des vents de la force d'une tornade[33] qui aspiraient vers le feu les victimes qui tentaient de se retenir[34],[35]. [73], On 15 February, the 1st Bombardment Division's primary target—the Böhlen synthetic oil plant near Leipzig—was obscured by clouds, so its groups diverted to their secondary target, Dresden. [127][128], The bombing of Dresden remains controversial and is subject to an ongoing debate by historians and scholars regarding the moral and military justifications surrounding the event. "[129] Similarly, British philosopher A. C. Grayling has described British area bombardment as an "immoral act" and "moral crime" because "destroying everything ... contravenes every moral and humanitarian principle debated in connection with the just conduct of war," but, "It is not strictly correct to describe area bombing as a 'war crime'."[150]. The last group to attack Dresden was the 306th, and they finished by 12:30. [88] Three municipal and 17 rural cemeteries outside Dresden recorded up to 30 April 1945 a total of at least 21,895 buried bodies of the Dresden raids, including those cremated on the Altmarkt. [101], The destruction of the city provoked unease in intellectual circles in Britain. La réalité a dû être encore plus dure. La ville de Dresde partagea ainsi le même sort que Berlin et Breslau, qui furent réduites en cendres, mais essentiellement par l’artillerie et les chars soviétiques. All these civilians' remains were burned to ashes".[162]. Dresde 1945 on Amazon.com. His studio having burned in the attack with his life's work, Rudolph immediately set out to record the destruction, systematically drawing block after block, often repeatedly to show the progress of clearing or chaos that ensued in the ruins. By this point in the war, the Luftwaffe was severely hampered by a shortage of both pilots and aircraft fuel; the German radar system was also degraded, lowering the warning time to prepare for air attacks. The RAF also had an advantage over the Germans in the field of electronic radar countermeasures. Dans la nuit du 13 au 14 février 1945, la ville de Dresde est victime du plus brutal bombardement aérien de la Seconde Guerre mondiale (à l'exception de Tokyo, Hiroshima et Nagasaki). À l'époque déjà, le ministère de la Propagande de Joseph Goebbels avait utilisé le bombardement de Dresde pour relativiser la responsabilité de l'Allemagne dans la guerre et placer les Allemands dans un rôle de victimes. The Albertstadt, in the north of Dresden, had remarkable military facilities that the bombings failed to hit. [16] On 4 March, Das Reich, a weekly newspaper founded by Goebbels, published a lengthy article emphasizing the suffering and destruction of a cultural icon, without mentioning any damage the attacks had caused to the German war effort. A secondary objective was to disrupt the industrial use of Dresden for munitions manufacture, which American intelligence believed was the case. Depuis janvier 1945, des raids sur l’Allemagne étaient lancés autant pour détruire les usines que pour faire vivre le peuple allemand dans l… Hence any assistance to the Soviets on the Eastern Front could shorten the war. Christian Guyard. The fan-shaped area that was bombed was 1.25 miles (2.01 km) long, and at its extreme about 1.75 miles (2.82 km) wide. He was in Dresden at the time and saw what happened. They scream and gesticulate with their hands, and then—to my utter horror and amazement—I see how one after the other they simply seem to let themselves drop to the ground. The scale of the destruction in Dresden was some of the most horrific of the air war in Europe, and the attack has been condemned as a war crime. ... How much guilt does this parasite not bear for all this, which we owe to his indolence and love of his own comforts. La stratégie allemande faisait de l’ensemble des grandes villes sur le front de l’Est — die Festungen (« les forteresses ») — un rempart. [131] As such, "grossly inflated"[5] casualty figures have been promulgated over the years, many based on a figure of over 200,000 deaths quoted in a forged version of the casualty report, Tagesbefehl No. A 120 kilomètres de là… [7], On 13 February 1945, bad weather over Europe prevented any USAAF operations, and it was left to RAF Bomber Command to carry out the first raid. ph, bombardement lysekrone 2/1, hængelampe, reserveret reserveret reserveret bombardement lysekrone i meget pÆn stand, flot stel, og med glas der er flotte og intakte ingen fejl. Dresde 1945 President Franklin Roosevelt (1882-1945), British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (1874-1965) and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin (1878-1953)met at Yalta in the USSR and compromised on their visions of the postwar world. [51] The attack was to centre on the Ostragehege sports stadium, next to the city's medieval Altstadt (old town), with its congested and highly combustible timbered buildings. [172], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}51°2′N 13°44′E / 51.033°N 13.733°E / 51.033; 13.733, British/American air raids on a city in Germany, RAF strategic bombing during the Second World War, U.S. Air Force Historical Division report. I do not know how many people I fell over. [24] On 25 January, the Joint Intelligence Committee supported the idea, as it tied in with the Ultra-based intelligence that dozens of German divisions deployed in the west were moving to reinforce the Eastern Front, and that interdiction of these troop movements should be a "high priority. The Allied bombing of Hamburg during World War II included numerous attacks on civilians and civic infrastructure. The damage to other infrastructure and communications was immense, which would have severely limited the potential use of Dresden to stop the Soviet advance. 47 ("TB47") issued on 22 March the number of dead recovered by that date was 20,204, including 6,865 who were cremated on the Altmarkt square, and they expected that the total number of deaths to be about 25,000. Lire en ligne: Archives nationales du Royaume Uni. Why did we burn its people? [40] According to the report, there were aircraft components factories; a poison gas factory (Chemische Fabrik Goye and Company); an anti-aircraft and field gun factory (Lehman); an optical goods factory (Zeiss Ikon AG); and factories producing electrical and X-ray apparatus (Koch & Sterzel [de] AG); gears and differentials (Saxoniswerke); and electric gauges (Gebrüder Bassler). Warning! [141] Two-thirds of the remaining population reportedly fled the city after the raids.[142]. to take advantage of a large number of refugees, or purposely terrorize the German populace). Février 1945 : Dresde est une ville ouverte, une ville désarmée où les 25 hôpitaux et les dizaines de centres d'accueil hébergent, nourrissent, réconfortent et soignent tant bien que mal des dizaines de milliers de réfugiés - vieillards, femmes et enfants - de mutilés et de blessés fuyant les "libérateurs" staliniens. [84], An RAF assessment showed that 23% of the industrial buildings and 56% of the non-industrial buildings, not counting residential buildings, had been seriously damaged. Køb PH 2/1 Bombardement Glas Overskærm - Louis Poulsen her. DK’s største udvalg af designerlamper. [36] Taylor writes that an official 1942 guide to the city described it as "one of the foremost industrial locations of the Reich" and in 1944 the German Army High Command's Weapons Office listed 127 medium-to-large factories and workshops that were supplying the army with materiel. Now I do not need to write it, because Vonnegut has written it much better than I could. Série "Toute L’histoire" par Frida samedi 11 mai 2013 7%. [89], Between 100,000 and 200,000 refugees[90] fleeing westward from advancing Soviet forces were in the city at the time of the bombing. ... ever since the deliberate mass bombing of civilians in the second world war, and as a direct response to it, the international community has outlawed the practice. The German national air-defence system could be used to argue—as the tribunal did—that no German city was "undefended". Baggrund og mål for angrebet. Find betydning, stavning, synonymer og meget mere i moderne dansk. Despite repeated diplomatic attempts to update international humanitarian law to include aerial warfare, it was not updated before the outbreak of World War II. So instead the Nazis sent in troops with flamethrowers. [106][107][108] On 28 March, in a memo sent by telegram to General Ismay for the British Chiefs of Staff and the Chief of the Air Staff, he wrote: It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of bombing of German cities simply for the sake of increasing the terror, though under other pretexts, should be reviewed. Le bombardement de Dresde, qui eut lieu du 13 au 15 février 1945, selon les principes de la Directive du ministère de l'air du gouvernement britannique sur le bombardement de zone du 14 février 1942 devenue avec l'USAAF celle de en 1943, détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde, dans le cadre d'un bombardement combiné en Bomber stream. [66][67] The remaining 115 bombers from the stream of 431 misidentified their targets. 3,0 sur 5 étoiles bon film de guerre. The feeling, such as there is, over Dresden, could be easily explained by any psychiatrist. À l'arrière-plan, la manufacture de tabac Yenidze. The Germans put him and other POWs to work gathering bodies for mass burial. Bombing of Dresden, during World War II, Allied bombing raids on February 13–15, 1945, that almost completely destroyed the German city of Dresden. Find Dresde Apocalypse at Amazon.com Movies & TV, home of thousands of titles on DVD and Blu-ray. Amazon.ca - Buy Dresde Apocalypse at a low price; free shipping on qualified orders. Several factors have made the bombing a unique point of contention and debate. He asserted in Dresden im Luftkrieg (1977) that only a few tales of civilians being strafed were reliable in detail, and all were related to the daylight attack on 14 February. Il détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde, dans le cadre d'un bombardement combiné en bomber stream. Au cours de la guerre froide, les préjugés idéologiques empêchèrent une étude objective du déroulement des événements. Ostensibly, Britain had learned this after the Coventry Blitz, when loss of this crucial infrastructure had supposedly longer-lasting effects than attacks on war plants. Le bombardement de Dresde eut lieu du 13 au 15 février 1945, selon les principes de la directive du ministère de l'Aviation du gouvernement britannique sur le bombardement de zone du 14 février 1942, devenue avec l'USAAF la directive de Casablanca en 1943.Il détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde, dans le cadre d'un bombardement combiné en bomber stream. [132][133][134], An inquiry conducted at the behest of U.S. Army Chief of Staff, General George C. Marshall, stated the raid was justified by the available intelligence. [b] This was a group of Lancasters from Bomber Command's 83 Squadron, No. [8] According to historian Donald Miller, "the economic disruption would have been far greater had Bomber Command targeted the suburban areas where most of Dresden's manufacturing might was concentrated". I know only one thing: that I must not burn. Bomb the glow of red TIs as planned". nécessaire]. Le bombardement de Dresde, qui eut lieu du 13 au 15 février 1945, détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde. [7] [8] Critics of the bombing have asserted that Dresden was a cultural landmark while downplaying its strategic significance, and claim that the attacks were indiscriminate area bombing and not proportionate to the military gains. [72] The official historical commission collected 103 detailed eyewitness accounts and let the local bomb disposal services search according to their assertions. En lire plus. The results were published in 2010 and stated that between 22,700[3] and 25,000 people[4] were killed. "[23] He mentioned that aircraft diverted to such raids should not be taken away from the current primary tasks of destroying oil production facilities, jet aircraft factories, and submarine yards. Explosion after explosion. 1,0 sur 5 étoiles Dresde en toile de fond. Le 13 Février à 09h40 quand les Mosquitos commencèrent les plans de repérage à l'aide de fusées éclairantes, il y avait dans la cité environ 500.000 réfugiés. Cette thèse est notamment défendue par Jacques Pauwels[10]. The industrial plants of Dresden played no significant role in German industry at this stage in the war". It was dark and all of us tried to leave this cellar with inconceivable panic. Le 75 e anniversaire du bombardement de Dresde devrait nous obliger à comprendre que, malheureusement, comme l’a déclaré l’homme d’État romain Cicéron, « En temps de guerre, la loi se tait. [159][160] In 1995, the fiftieth anniversary of the bombing, Anti-Germans praised the bombing on the grounds that so many of the city's civilians had supported Nazism. "Le 7 mai 1945, juste avant la capitulation allemande, Patton eut une conférence en Autriche avec le Secrétaire américain à la Guerre Robert Patterson. Far-right politicians in Germany have sparked a great deal of controversy by promoting the term "Bombenholocaust" ("holocaust by bomb") to describe the raids. We use cookies and similar tools to enhance your shopping experience, to provide our services, understand how customers use our services so we can make improvements, and display ads. At 21:59 the Local Air Raid Leadership confirmed that the bombers were in the area of Dresden-Pirna. Vonnegut recalled "utter destruction" and "carnage unfathomable." [38], The US Air Force Historical Division wrote a report in response to the international concern about the bombing that remained classified until December 1978. It is connected with German bands and Dresden shepherdesses. A further 1,858 bodies were discovered during the reconstruction of Dresden between the end of the war and 1966. [94] Goebbels is reported to have wept with rage for twenty minutes after he heard the news of the catastrophe, before launching into a bitter attack on Hermann Göring, the commander of the Luftwaffe: "If I had the power I would drag this cowardly good-for-nothing, this Reich marshal, before a court. The raid achieved the military objective, without excessive loss of civilian life. archive DRESDE OU LA MÉMOIRE BLESSÉE En deux jours, les 14 et 15 février 1945, RAF et Américains ont lâché 800 000 bombes sur la capitale saxonne. Phrases like "Bomber-Harris, do it again! Similar rallies take place every year. [61] The German sirens sounded again at 01:05, but as there was practically no electricity, these were small hand-held sirens that were heard within only a block. During the Second World War, Britain was on summer time and. [7] Even after the main firebombing, there were two further raids on the Dresden railway yards by the USAAF. Comme le fut Hiroshima, Tokyo et Nagazaki pour les Japonais 157.193.127.45 5 … Buy Le Bombardement de Dresde -DVD from Amazon's Movies Store. "[166] Dyson later goes on to say: "Since the beginning of the war I had been retreating step by step from one moral position to another, until at the end I had no moral position at all". a) en 42 pages, un état des connaissances actuelles sur la recherche et l'enregistrement des personnes décédées durant le bombardement (Matthias Neutzner); [7], The third and fourth points say that the size of the Dresden raid—in terms of numbers, types of bombs and the means of delivery—were commensurate with the military objective and similar to other Allied bombings. In response, Portal, who was in Yalta, asked Bottomley to send him a list of objectives to discuss with the Soviets. On 23 February 1945, the Allies bombed Pforzheim and caused an estimated 20,000 civilian fatalities; the most devastating raid on any city was on Tokyo on 9–10 March (the Meetinghouse raid)[139] caused over 100,000 civilian casualties. Le recensement des survivants restés sur place, selon le décompte du 30 avril 1945, deux mois après l'attaque, fait état de 368 519 personnes[21]. b) le projet Mathildenstrasse, 12 pages, (Anton Tuch) avec l'étude d'une rue comme exemple; [35], According to the RAF at the time, Dresden was Germany's seventh-largest city and the largest remaining unbombed built-up area. [13][14], In the decades since the war, large variations in the claimed death toll have fuelled the controversy, though the numbers themselves are no longer a major point of contention among historians. The story itself is told through the eyes of Billy Pilgrim, a clear stand-in for Vonnegut himself. Dresde était en 1939 la septième ville de l’Allemagne avec une population de 642 000 habitants. Le duc de Kent était à Dresde pour la remise du “Prix de la paix” à Kim Phuc Phan Thi, ... (pire que le phosphore). Causalty figures have varied mainly due to false information spread by Nazi German and Soviet propaganda. Il détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde, dans le cadre d'un bombardement combiné en bomber stream. Ici, je dirai seulement que l'attaque de Dresde était à l'époque considérée comme une nécessité militaire par des personnes beaucoup plus importantes que moi." L'United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) et la Royal Air Force (RAF) utilisèrent des bombes incendiaires notamment à la thermite [1], l'emploi du phosphore étant lui discuté. I can never forget them. [e] Proponents disagree that Dresden had a military garrison and claim that most of the industry was in the outskirts and not in the targeted city centre,[154] and that the cultural significance of the city should have precluded the Allies from bombing it. [85], According to official German report Tagesbefehl (Order of the Day) no. It was overdone, it was excessive and is to be regretted enormously," but, "A war crime is a very specific thing which international lawyers argue about all the time and I would not be prepared to commit myself nor do I see why I should. Une utilisation massive permet de provoquer un Feuersturm, un embrasement généralisé de l'air détruisant de larges surfaces, comme lors des bombardements stratégiques durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale en Allemagne et au Japon. On 8 February 1945, the Red Army crossed the Oder River, with positions just 70 kilometres (43 mi) from Berlin. [122][123], A further development towards the reconstruction of Dresden's historical core came in 1999 when the Dresden Historical Neumarkt Society was founded. British historian Antony Beevor wrote that Dresden was considered relatively safe, having been spared previous RAF night attacks, and that at the time of the raids there were up to 300,000 refugees in the area seeking sanctuary from the advancing Red Army from the Eastern Front. Contrairement aux autres grandes villes, il n'y avait donc pas eu de plan étendu de protection avec grands abris anti-aériens[17]. [a] Three more USAAF air raids followed, two occurring on 2 March aimed at the city's railway marshalling yard and one smaller raid on 17 April aimed at industrial areas. The Eighth Air Force had already bombed the railway yards near the centre of the city twice in daytime raids: once on 7 October 1944 with 70 tons of high-explosive bombs killing more than 400,[46] then again with 133 bombers on 16 January 1945, dropping 279 tons of high-explosives and 41 tons of incendiaries. Since no official estimate had been developed, the numbers were speculative, but newspapers such as the Stockholm Svenska Morgonbladet used phrases such as "privately from Berlin," to explain where they had obtained the figures. Le bombardement de Dresde du 13 & 14 Février 1945, a ,au bas mot causé 135.000 victimes. The Red Army had launched its Silesian Offensives into pre-war German territory. The raids became a symbol of the “terror bombing” campaign against Germany, which was one of the most controversial Allied actions of the war. Le chercheur allemand Jörg Friedrich fait état de 40 000 morts[26]. Vonnegut, being American, did not want to write his account in such a way that the whole thing could be blamed on the British. Sixty bombed Prague, dropping 153 tons of bombs, while others bombed Brux and Pilsen. Pour le parti d’extrême droite Alternative pour l'Allemagne (AFD), le nombre officiel de victimes est largement sous-estimé. [83] Almost 200 factories were damaged, 136 seriously (including several of the Zeiss Ikon precision optical engineering works), 28 with medium to serious damage, and 35 with light damage. [82] The lead aircraft of the major enemy bomber forces have changed course and are now approaching the city area".[79]. Une fois le ciel dégagé des avions ennemis, ceux qui avaient survécu dans des abris ressortaient dans les rues pour aider les blessés et enlever les morts. [140], In late July 1943, the city of Hamburg was bombed in Operation Gomorrah by combined RAF and USAAF strategic bomber forces. I cannot forget these terrible details. Februar 1945", Air operations during the Battle of Europe, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, Rape during the Soviet occupation of Poland, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bombing_of_Dresden_in_World_War_II&oldid=994797400, History of the Royal Air Force during World War II, World War II strategic bombing of Germany, Aerial operations and battles of World War II by town or city, Germany–United Kingdom military relations, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from November 2013, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 7 aircraft (1 B-17 and 6 Lancasters, including crews), Military units and anti-aircraft defences were sufficiently close that it was not valid to consider the city "undefended.". [45], The Dresden attack was to have begun with a USAAF Eighth Air Force bombing raid on 13 February 1945. She runs, she falls, and the child flies in an arc into the fire. As Dresden had been largely untouched during the war due to its location, it was one of the few remaining functional rail and communications centres. Though no one involved in the bombing of Dresden was ever charged with a war crime, some hold the opinion that the bombing was one. His account relates that over 135,000 were killed during the firebombings. Dead and dying people were trampled upon, luggage was left or snatched up out of our hands by rescuers. Le 13 février 1945, les démocraties anglaise et américaine commencent le plus brutal Les deux premiers raids de la RAF furent de 243 puis 529 Lancaster (bombardiers de nuit en raison de leur conception moins défensive – cible : ville « city area ») ; le troisième, le lendemain 14, par l'USAF, était de 316 B-17 (bombardiers conçus pour opérer de jour avec des défenses efficaces à bord, et avec précision – cible : triages « marshalling yards ») accompagné de 100 à 200 chasseurs ; le quatrième raid, le 15 février, de L'USAF, était de 211 B-17 – cible : triages[13],[14]. Sir Arthur Harris affirma que la décision avait été prise à un échelon très supérieur à lui[39]. It had been decided that the raid would be a double strike, in which a second wave of bombers would attack three hours after the first, just as the rescue teams were trying to put out the fires. The first group to arrive over the target was the 401st, but it missed the city centre and bombed Dresden's southeastern suburbs, with bombs also landing on the nearby towns of Meissen and Pirna. With the city on fire everywhere, those fleeing from one burning cellar simply ran into another, with the result that thousands of bodies were found piled up in houses at the end of city blocks.