Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (Arabic: عمر بن عبد العزيز‎, romanized: ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz; 2 November 682 – c. 5 February 720), commonly known as Umar II (عمر الثاني), was the eighth Umayyad caliph. [11] The nomination of Umar voided the wishes of Abd al-Malik, who sought to restrict the office to his direct descendants. When the officials complained that because of conversions, the jizya revenues of the state had experienced a steep decline, Umar wrote back saying that he had accepted the Caliphate to invite people to Islam and not to become a tax collector. Umar's grandfather, Marwan I, was ultimately recognized by these tribes as caliph and, with their support, reasserted Umayyad rule in Syria. However, some Twelver scholars, such as Fadhlalla, reject these accounts of physical abuse as a "myth",[126] although Fadlallah mentioned that his speech is a probability, and not a certain reason to reject that event. With the necessary public support on his side, Omar took the bold decision of recalling Khalid ibn Walid from supreme command on the Roman front.[62]. [11] As a result of this and his short term in office, it is difficult to assess the achievements of his caliphate and his motives. Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 52. "[16], Despite literacy being uncommon in pre-Islamic Arabia, Omar learned to read and write in his youth. Omar ibn al-Khattâb (arabe : عمر بن الخطاب), né en 584 à La Mecque et mort le 7 novembre 644 à Médine, est un compagnon de Mahomet, le prophète de l'islam, et faisait partie du clan des Banu Adi (en) de la tribu Quraych.. Né en 584, il devient calife en succédant à Abou Bakr en 634 et dirige la oumma pendant 10 ans. Sa naissance. Omar died of the wounds three days later on Wednesday 3 November 644 (26 Dhu al-Hijjah 23 AH). [citation needed] On his way back from Damascus to Aleppo or possibly to his Khunasira estate, Umar fell ill.[30] He died between 5 February and 10 February 720,[30] at the age of 37,[31] in the village of Dayr Sim'an (the Monastery of Simeon) near Ma'arrat al-Nu'man. He also permitted Jewish families to resettle in Jerusalem, which had previously been barred from all Jews. Elle est née cinq années avant la Révélation, la même année que Fâtima, la fille du Prophète. In 630, when Muslim armies rushed for the conquest of Mecca, he was part of that army. ‘Abderrazaq de Ibn ‘Uyaynah de ‘Amrou ibn Dinar qui a dit : « Quand est mort Khalid ibn al-Walid, les femmes se sont réunies dans la maison de Maymuna (la femme du Prophète) et pleuraient. Abu Bakr resta silencieux. [112], Omar's swift imposition of justice against his governors for misdeeds made even powerful governors such as Muawiyah scared of him. [32] Another video showed the grave opened and emptied. People asked him why and his reply was "You will see what I am speaking about if you survive. [41] While the funeral of Muhammad was being arranged a group of Muhammad's followers who were natives of Medina, the Ansar (helpers), organised a meeting on the outskirts of the city, effectively locking out those companions known as Muhajirs (The Emigrants) including Omar. Abu Bakr appointed Omar as his successor before dying in 634 CE. To further pressure the Christian Arab armies, Omar instructed Saad ibn Abi Waqqas, commander of Muslim forces in Iraq, to send reinforcements to Emesa. 'Omar rebroussa chemin et se dirigea vers la maison de sa sœur qui, en compagnie de son époux, recevait Khabbâb Ibn Al-Aratt qui leur faisait réciter la sourate Taha à partir d'un parchemin. Omar also adopted a policy of assigning barren lands to those who undertook to cultivate them. [107] During Abu Bakr's era, he actively participated as his secretary and main adviser. During his own reign later, Omar would mostly adopt the policy of avoiding wars and consolidating his power in the incorporated lands rather than expanding his empire through continuous warfare. Il garantit la sauvegarde des lieux de culte chrétien et ordonna à ses hommes de ne pas les détruire et de ne pas les utiliser comme habitations. Entendue durant le mois béni de Ramadan 1441 de l'hégire sur Radio Sunnite, la voix de l'APBIF. [66], Another important aspect of Omar's rule was that he forbade any of his governors and agents from engaging in any sort of business dealings whilst in a position of power. 581-644 ʻUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb, calife, m. 644 Umar ben al-Chattáb, chalifa, -644 VIAF ID: 27868234 (Personal) 2018 - Découvrez le tableau "Umar ibn khattab (r.a)" de El Nya sur Pinterest. The Muslims annexed Mesopotamia and parts of Byzantine Armenia. Omar's visit to Jerusalem is documented in several sources. He succeeded Abu Bakr (632–634) as the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate on 23 August 634. Pasture lands and game reserves, which were reserved for the family of the dignitaries, were evenly distributed among the poor for the purpose of cultivation. [23], He continued the welfare programs of the last few Umayyad caliphs, expanding them and including special programs for orphans and the destitute. Later in the year Omar was a part of a campaign against the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir. While the meeting for selection of a caliph was proceeding, Abdulrehman ibn Abu Bakr and Abdur Rahman bin Awf revealed that they saw the dagger used by Piruz, the assassin of Omar. Et que la paix soit sur vous ainsi que la miséricorde de Dieu et sa bénédiction. The final expedition was launched against Khurasan, where, after the Battle of Oxus River, the Persian empire ceased to exist, and Yazdegerd III fled to Central Asia. Later in 627 he participated in the Battle of the Trench and also in the Battle of Banu Qurayza. State officials were excluded from entering into any business. In 638 CE, Arabia fell into severe drought followed by a famine. Oorwa Ibn Zoubeyr, qu'Allah les agree, rapporte: Abou Bakr, qu'Allah I'agree, revint CIIlprs du Sonh (quartier des Bemou Alhatith Ibn Alkhazraj au plateau de Medine a un mille de I~ maison du Prophete, Abou Bakr vint en apprenant la mort du Prophete, voir Ie debut de l'histoire ch6 §2.2 C) sur sa monture et s'arreta devant la porte de la mosquee. Omar said: By Allah, we did not send you to engage in trade! ", [40] Hearing this, Omar fell on his knees in sorrow and acceptance. Omar was the first to introduce the public ministry system, where the records of officials and soldiers were kept. Sa … Umar était triste de voir sa fille, si jeune, vivre dans le veuvage. The government of Omar was a unitary government, where the sovereign political authority was the caliph. [41] However, Omar was undeterred in his belief the caliphate should be under the control of the Muhajirs. For instance, Madelung discounts the possibility of the use of force and argues that: Isolated reports of use of force against Ali and Banu Hashim who unanimously refused to swear allegiance for six months are probably to be discounted. Omar's general instructions to his officers were: Remember, I have not appointed you as commanders and tyrants over the people. Each district or main city was under the charge of a junior governor or Amir, usually appointed by Omar himself, but occasionally also appointed by the provincial governor. He was an expert Muslim jurist known for his pious and just nature, which earned him the epithet Al-Farooq ("the one who distinguishes (between right and wrong)"). [74] He is regarded by Sunni Muslims as one of the greatest Faqih, and, as such, he started the process of codifying Islamic Law. We fit everyone. Some branches, such as Jaroudiah (Sarhubiyya), don't accept Omar and Abu Bakr as legitimate caliphs. [citation needed] "[113], Under Omar's rule, in order to promote strict discipline, Arab soldiers were settled outside of cities, between the desert and cultivated lands in special garrison towns known as "amsar". [3], According to the traditional Muslim sources, when Sulayman was on his deathbed in Dabiq, he was persuaded by Raja to designate Umar as his successor. il y a 1 an. Mani was born near Seleucia-Ctesiphon, perhaps in the town Mardinu in the Babylonian district of Nahr Kutha; according to other accounts in the town Abrumya. [120] He did not seek advancement for his own family, but rather sought to advance the interests of the Muslim community, the ummah. The Mujadid of the 4th century was Abu Abdullah Hakim Nishapuri. —- Début de la traduction —-3682 – (Solide) Nous avons été informés par Salam bin Chabib, nous avons été informés par al-Moqri, d’après Haywa bin Chari’h, d’apres Bikr bin Amrou, d’apres Michra’h bin Ha’aane : Oukba bin Amer a dit que le prophète a dit : « s’il devait y avoir un prophète après-moi, qu’il soit Omar ibn al-Khattab ». [40] Abū Bakr then recited these verses from the Qur'an: "Muhammad is but a messenger; messengers (the like of whom) have passed away before him. (Al-Bihar, Volume 29, Page 192) Dans une autre version : Abu Bakr écrivit un titre de propriété de Fadak, donc Fatima sortit avec le document dans ses mains. Campaigns Umar ordered, When Muhammad arrived in Medina, he paired each immigrant (Muhajir) with one of the residents of the city (Ansari), joining Muhammad ibn Maslamah with Omar, making them brothers in faith. Omar also ordered the expulsion to Syria and Iraq of the Christian and Jewish communities of Najran and Khaybar. [7] He was a senior companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. According to one estimate more than 4,050 cities were captured during these military conquests. [22], Umar was a scholar and surrounded himself with great scholars like Muhammad ibn Ka'b and Maymun ibn Mihran. Later, however, he came to agree with Abu Bakr's strategy to crush the rebellion by force. [110], Omar never appointed governors for more than two years, for they might amass too much local power. Through his personal example, he inculcated piety, steadfastness, business ethics and moral rectitude in the general population. When his sister came to rescue her husband, he also started quarreling with her. [114], A modern researcher writes about this:[115]. As a ruler of a vast kingdom, his vision was to ensure that every one in his kingdom should sleep on a full stomach. Surrounded with great scholars, he is credited with having ordered the first official collection of Hadiths and encouraged education to everyone. Give the Muslims their rights and do not beat them lest they become abused. After Muhammad's passing, it was Omar who reconciled the Medinan Muslims to accept Abu Bakr, a Meccan, as the caliph. [citation needed], Even though almost all of the Muslims had given their pledge of loyalty to Omar, he was feared more than loved. [11], According to historian Reinhard Eisener, Raja's role in the affair was likely "exaggerated"; "more reasonable" was that Umar's succession was the result of "traditional patterns, like seniority and well-founded claims" stemming from Caliph Marwan I's original designation of Umar's father, Abd al-Aziz, as Abd al-Malik's successor,[14] which had not materialized due to Abd al-Aziz predeceasing Abd al-Malik. [citation needed], Second Caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate and a companion of Muhammad. [16] His choice of governors for al-Andalus and Ifriqiya stemmed from his perceptions of their neutrality amid the tribal factionalism of the Qays and Yaman and justice toward the oppressed. 12.7.2020. [citation needed]. Il était issu de la branche hautement respectée des Adi des Quraish, représentants des Quraish lors des négociations avec les autres tribus et juges lors des désaccords. [19], Omar became a merchant and made several journeys to Rome and Persia, where he is said to have met various scholars and analyzed Roman and Persian societies. Sa Mère s'appelait Zaynab bint Maz'ûn. [citation needed] Provincial governors received as much as five to seven thousand dirham annually besides their shares of the spoils of war (if they were also the commander in chief of the army of their sector). [33], Umar II was succeeded by Yazid II. ʻAbdallah ibn ʻOmar (ibn Al-Khattab), qu’Allah l’agrée, était le fils du grand compagnon et émir des croyants ʻOmar ibn Al-Khattab. Rather than ape the manner of a Caesar, as the Ghassanid kings had done, he drew on the example of a quite different kind of Christian. [101], Omar appointed a band of fifty armed soldiers to protect the house where the meeting was proceeding. In a sullen mood, Piruz said, "Verily I will make such a mill for you, that the whole world would remember it".[96]. A three-pronged attack against Jazirah was launched from Iraq. [3] He accompanied the latter when he led the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca in 716 and on his return to Jerusalem. At this stage Omar even challenged anyone who dared to stop the Muslims from praying, although no one dared to interfere with Omar when he was openly praying. [citation needed], After the Battle of Nahavand, Omar launched a full-scale invasion of the Sassanid Persian Empire. Islamic Quarterly 8 (1964) p.4. He used to make me work hard; if I didn't work he used to beat me and he used to work me to exhaustion. [2] However, other accounts hold that he showed himself to be materialistic during his early career. It was only when Omar marched into Jerusalem with an army that he asked Kaab, who was Jewish before he converted to Islam, "Where do you advise me to build a place of worship?" Efforts in inviting people to Islam (Dawah), sfn error: no target: CITEREFAl-Tabari1990 (, tribal factionalism of the Qays and Yaman, "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia", "The Great Khalifah Umar ibn Abdul Aziz - TurnToIslam Islamic Forum & Social Network", "Umar bin Abdulaziz's tomb desecrated in Syria's Idlib", "Iran-backed terrorist groups exhume shrine of Muslim caliph Omar bin Abdulaziz in Syria's Idlib", Califes, émirs et cadis : le droit califal et l’articulation de l’autorité judiciaire à l’époque umayyade,, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 22 September 717 – 4 February 720 CE/101 AH, Abū Ḥafṣ ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Marwān ibn al-Ḥakam. [3][20], At some point in 717, he dispatched a force under Ibn Hatim ibn al-Nu'man al-Bahili to Adharbayjan to disperse a group of Turks who had launched damaging raids against the province. [51], Along with Khalid ibn Walid, Omar was influential in the Ridda wars. [27], Shah Waliullah Dehlawi, an 18th century Sunni Islamic scholar, stated:[34]. Son père, Al-Khattab, était l'un des chefs les plus redoutés et les plus respectés, bien qu'il ne soit pas un riche notable. Omar ibn al-Khattab (qu’Allah l’agrée) fut un proche compagnon du prophète (paix et bénédiction d’Allah soient sur lui) et le second calife de l’islam à la mort d’Abu Bakr (qu’Allah l’agrée). Omar launched the invasion by attacking the very heart of Persia, aiming to isolate Azerbaijan and eastern Persia. [17][18] He was also a gifted orator who succeeded his father as an arbitrator among the tribes. [citation needed] He killed Hurmuzan, Jafinah, and the daughter of Omar's assassin Abu Lulu, who is believed to have been a Muslim. [30] On 26 May 2020, during the Syrian Civil War, Iran-backed militias reportedly raided Umar's mausoleum as shown in video footage published by pro-Syrian government pages on social media, although the purportedly damaged shrine was in the village of Deir Sharqi. [3], Shortly after his accession, Abd al-Malik's son and successor, al-Walid I (r. 705–715), appointed Umar governor of Medina. Son arbre généalogique rejoint celui du noble Prophète à Ka'b Ibn Lou'ayy. [14] His father was Khattab ibn Nufayl and his mother was Hantama bint Hisham, from the tribe of Banu Makhzum. During his reign the Levant, Egypt, Cyrenaica, Tripolitania, Fezzan, Eastern Anatolia, almost the whole of the Sassanid Persian Empire including Bactria, Persia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Caucasus and Makran were annexed to the Rashidun Caliphate. La performance des acteurs ainsi que la réalisation donnent à Omar Ibn Al-Khattab Al-Faruq un charme attirant. [citation needed] This was immediately followed by simultaneous attacks on Azerbaijan and Fars. When he accepted Islam, the Quraysh were compelled to let us pray in the Mosque. [10][16] In place of Ibn al-Muhallab, he assigned Abd al-Hamid ibn Abd al-Rahman ibn Zayd ibn al-Khattab, a member of Caliph Umar I's family, to Kufa, Adi ibn Artah al-Fazari to Basra, al-Jarrah ibn Abdallah al-Hakami to Khurasan and Amr ibn Muslim al-Bahili, a brother of the accomplished general Qutayba ibn Muslim, to Sindh. Sunni Muslims say that this denial of Muhammad's death was occasioned by his deep love for him. [117] Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah before Omar died famously said: "If Omar dies, Islam would be weakened". Militarily, Umar is sometimes deemed a pacifist, since he ordered the withdrawal of the Muslim army in places such as Constantinople and Central Asia despite being a good military leader. It has been reported in mainly Persian historical sources written 300 years later, such as in the History of al-Tabari, that after Ali's refusal to pay homage, Abu Bakr sent Omar with an armed contingent to Fatimah's house where Ali and his supporters are said to have gathered. [27] In the view of Hawting, this is partly based on the historical facts and Umar's character and actions, but "He truly as all evidence indicates was a man of honour,dignity and a ruler worthy of every respect". The principal officers were required to travel to Mecca on the occasion of the Hajj, during which people were free to present any complaint against them. [9] The latter's brother and successor, Sulayman (r. 715–717), held Umar in high regard. [13], Omar was born in Mecca to the Banu Adi clan, which was responsible for arbitration among the tribes. [29] This further helped the Muslims to gain confidence in practicing Islam openly. [58], Omar was a gifted orator, and he used his ability to improve his reputation among the people. Sources indicate that a threat was made to burn Ali's house if he refused, but the encounter ended when Fatimah, wife of Ali, intervened. [17] According to the tradition of Quraish, while still in his teenage years, Omar learned martial arts, horse riding and wrestling. Né à La Mecque, homme d’une prodigieuse intelligence, il vécut à Rome et en Perse. [16], Though many of the appointees in the eastern provinces were pupils of al-Hajjaj or affiliated with the Qays faction, Umar chose them based on their reliability and integrity, rather than opposition to Sulayman's government. 'Umar ibn al Khattab innove et les sunnites suivent Le Messager (sawas) a dit : « La parole la plus véridique est le livre d’Allah et la meilleure tradition est celle de Muhammad (sawas) ; les pires choses [en matière de religion] ce sont les nouveautés. The murder of Jafinah enraged Saad ibn Abi Waqqas, his foster brother, and he assaulted Ubaidullah ibn Umar; again the companions intervened. ʻUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb, Caliph, -644 ʿUmar b. al-Ḵaṭṭāb ca591-644 عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ ʿUmar ibn al-H̱aṭṭāb, 0581-0644 ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb, ca. According to Nazeer Ahmed, it was during the time of Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz that the Islamic faith took roots and was accepted by huge segments of the population of Persia and Egypt. [111], He would patrol the streets of Medina with a whip in his hand, ready to punish any offenders he might come across. [2] : Le premier calife [3] : Khalid ibn al-Walid. I have sent you as leaders instead, so that the people may follow your example. [3] According to Cobb, this ultimately served as Umar's "undoing" as al-Hajjaj pressured the caliph to dismiss Umar in May/June 712. [3] Umar tolerated many of these scholars' vocal criticism of the Umayyad government's conduct. Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Hazm and Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri are among those who compiled hadiths at Umar II's behest.[24]. [21], In 610 Muhammad started preaching the message of Islam. Page(s): Cliquez pour agrandir (page 118) Cliquez pour agrandir (page 119) Source: Moussanaf ibn Abi Chayba. [23] He firmly believed in the unity of the Quraish and saw the new faith of Islam as a cause of division and discord. 2, P. 95, International propagation of Salafism and Wahhabism, Conquest of Isfahan & Tabaristan (642–643), "Hadith - Book of Companions of the Prophet - Sahih al-Bukhari - - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)", "Umar Ibn Al-Khattab : His Life and Times, Volume 1", "The Institute of Ismaili Studies - Institute of Ismaili Studies", "Hadith - Book of Judgments (Ahkaam) - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)", "Umar Ibn Al-Khattab : His Life and Times, Volume 2", "History Of Science And Technology In Islam", "Khalifa Umar bin al-Khattab – Death of Umar", "Hadith - Book of Model Behavior of the Prophet (Kitab Al-Sunnah) - Sunan Abi Dawud - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)", "Umar Ibn Al-Khattab: His Life and Times, Volume 1". [3] In 718, he successively deployed Iraqi and Syrian troops to suppress the Kharijite rebellion of Shawdhab al-Yashkuri in Iraq, though some sources say the revolt was settled diplomatically. If a dog dies hungry on the banks of the River Euphrates, Omar will be responsible for dereliction of duty. For internally displaced people, Omar hosted a dinner every night at Medina, which according to one estimate, had attendance of more than a hundred thousand people. When he saw what he did to his sister, he calmed down out of guilt and asked his sister to give him what she was reciting. [118] This had not been done during the time of Muhammad. The World Factbook 2010 & Retrieved 2010-08-25. Appelé “commandeur des croyants”, ses mérites sont multiples : il était doté d’une humilité et d’un comportement hors-norme. [citation needed], Later, Abu Ubaidah paid a personal visit to Medina and acted as an officer of disaster management, which was headed personally by Omar. Abdullah ibn Masʿud would often weep whenever the subject of Omar was brought up. [84][85][86][87], Local populations of Jews and Christians, persecuted as religious minorities and taxed heavily to finance the Byzantine–Sassanid Wars, often aided Muslims to take over their lands from the Byzantines and Persians, resulting in exceptionally speedy conquests. [28], Campaigns Umar led during time of Muhammad Eric Younous officiel 41,854 views [citation needed], The Persian slave Piruz Nahavandi (also known as Abu Lulu) brought a complaint to Omar about the high tax charged by his master Mughirah. We didn't offer prayers in Al-Haram Mosque until Umar had accepted Islam. "[39] Abu Bakr then publicly spoke to the community in the mosque, saying: "Whoever worshiped Muhammad, let them know that Muhammad has died, and whoever worshiped Allah, let them know that Allah is alive and never dies.". In 624 Omar participated in the first battle between Muslims and Quraish of Mecca i.e., the Battle of Badr. His was perhaps one of the smoothest transitions of power from one authority to another in the Muslim lands. Western scholars tend to agree that Ali believed he had a clear mandate to succeed Muhammad,[citation needed] but offer differing views as to the extent of use of force by Omar in an attempt to intimidate Ali and his supporters. [citation needed] In 638, his fourth year as caliph and the seventeenth year since the Hijra, he decreed that the Islamic calendar should be counted from the year of the Hijra of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina. In 625 he took part in the Battle of Uhud. [75] The Jews, Kaab explained, had briefly won back their old capital a quarter of a century before (when Persians overran Syria and Palestine), but they had not had time to clear the site of the Temple, for the Rums (Byzantines) had recaptured the city. [104] Others[who?] [citation needed] The empire of Omar was divided into provinces and some autonomous territories, e.g., Azerbaijan and Armenia, that had accepted the suzerainty of the caliphate. [3][97][98], As per Omar's will, he was buried next to Al-Masjid al-Nabawi alongside Muhammad and caliph Abu Bakr by the permission of Aisha. Umar Ibn al-Khattab (may God be pleased with him), the second of the Rightly Guided Caliphs of Islam, made an inconceivably large contribution not only to the geographic spread of Islam, but to the establishment of religious justice and intellectual freedom as well. Surah Al-Fatihah(الفاتحة) 1:1 In the Name of Allah—the Most Compassionate, Most Merciful. [41], Wilferd Madelung summarises Omar's contribution: [43], Umar judged the outcome of the Saqifa assembly to be a falta [translated by Madelung as 'a precipitate and ill-considered deal'[44]] because of the absence of most of the prominent Muhajirun, including the Prophet's own family and clan, whose participation he considered vital for any legitimate consultation (shura, mashwara). In addition to this, Omar, in order to improve his reputation and relation with the Banu Hashim, the tribe of Ali, delivered to the latter his disputed estates in Khayber. Commentaire : Omar Ibn Al Khattab, se remet immédiatement en question, et se met à pleurer lorsqu’il écoute la femme lui demander des comptes. Ubaidullah was intercepted by the people of Medina, who prevented him from continuing the massacre. [3] Likewise, he was at the caliph's side at the Muslims' marshaling camp at Dabiq in northern Syria, where Sulayman directed the massive war effort to conquer the Byzantine capital of Constantinople in 717. He apologized, moreover, that the Muhajirun present were forced to press for an immediate oath of allegiance since the Ansar could not have been trusted to wait for a legitimate consultation and might have proceeded to elect one of their own after the departure of the Mekkans. Sa généalogie. Omar appartenait à une famille de la classe moyenne du clan Adi, qui faisait partie de la tribu de Qouraysh. He would always color his beard and take care of his hair using a type of plant. He issued an edict on taxation stating: Whosoever accepts Islam, whether Christian, Jew or Zoroastrian, of those now subject to taxes and who joins himself to the body of the Muslims in their abode, forsaking the abode in which he was before, he shall have the same rights and duties as they have, and they are obliged to associate with him and to treat him as one of themselves. Omar then is reported to have asked Abu Lulu: "I heard that you make windmills; make one for me as well." [102], One writer states that Omar was a political genius and, as an architect of the Islamic Empire, rates him as the 52nd most influential figure in history. Manger ce qui nous tue à petit feu, est-ce licite? In the second phase of the battle, when Khalid ibn Walid's cavalry attacked the Muslim rear, turning the tide of battle, rumours of Muhammad's death were spread and many Muslim warriors were routed from the battlefield, Omar among them. Another reason for Umar to censure the Saqifa meeting as a falta was no doubt its turbulent and undignified end, as he and his followers jumped upon the sick Khazraji leader Sa'd bin Ubada in order to teach him a lesson, if not to kill him, for daring to challenge the sole right of Quraysh to rule. R. B. Serjeant, "Sunnah Jami'ah, pacts with the Yathrib Jews, and the Tahrim of Yathrib: analysis and translation of the documents comprised in the so-called 'Constitution of Medina'", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies (1978), 41: 1–42, Cambridge University Press. After prolonged negotiations, the tribunal decided to give blood money to the victims, and released Omar's son Ubaidullah on the ground that, after the tragedy of Omar's assassination, people would be further infuriated by the execution of his son the very next day. [3] Despite the withdrawal, Umar kept up the annual summer raids against the Byzantine frontier,[3] out of the obligation to jihad. Most Muslims migrated at night fearing Quraish resistance, but Omar is reported to have left openly during the day saying: "Any one who wants to make his wife a widow and his children orphans should come and meet me there behind that cliff. [48] An Armenian bishop writing a decade or so after Qadisiyya describes Omar as a "mighty potentate coordinating the advance of the sons of Ismael from the depths of the desert". But with all of this, he was also known for being kindhearted, answering the needs of the fatherless and widows.